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Baseline Survey Report of NRM Project

Base Line Survey Report of Nepal

Strengthening participation of IPs the role and contribution of IP’s women on Sustainable Resources Management at Sankhuwasbha and Makawanpur Nepal

Background

Nepal has three ecological zones such as mountain, hill and terai (low land) that portrait a dissent of its geography.  Country bears primordial diverse ethnic cultures reside on these geographical areas. Census 2011 shows 123 languages speaker and 126 diverse caste and ethnic groups live in different ecological region with own culture, traditions, religion in the country. Among them Chhetree, Brahmin-Hill, Magar, Tharu, Tamang, Newar, Musalman, Kami (Dalit-Hill) and Yadav hold  more than one million population. The total population of the country is 26,494,504 with growth rates 1.35 per annum. Total households are 5,427,302 with 5,423,279 individual households and 4,005 institutional households (Barracks, Hostel, and Monasteries etc). Chhetree is the largest caste/ethnic groups having 16.6% (4, 398,05) of the total population followed by Brahman-Hill (12.2%; 3,22,903), Magar (7.1%, 1,887,733), Tharu (6.6%; 1,737,470), Tamang (5.8%; 1,539,830). Tamang is the third largest population within the ethnic group. Having diverse cultural characteristics mother tongue, festivals, songs, dances, dresses, customs, rituals and enjoyment they represent different identities of the peoples.. By religious, Hindus, Buddists, Muslims, Christians, Kirat, Animist and the followers of other religions are in practice.   

Objectives

To identify and analysis basic information on the role of the indigenous women and their participation on sustainable resources management, mechanisms, institutions, access and employments including social, religion, health, education, and livelihood, economical status, governmental policies and situation of disaster, position of Indigenous Nationalities in the village development committee and community level was the general objective.  

Specific Objectives

  1. To find out the approach of strengthening the participation of indigenous peoples in sustainable natural resource management-particularly the role and contribution of indigenous women
  2. To Collect the Primary data of overall specific community.
  3. To find out situation of indigenous community and access to natural resources.
  4. To baseline information of INs in the General information, Social, Religion, health, Education, Gender, Natural livelihood, economic condition, government and policies and situation of disaster.
  5. To find the position of INs in the local resources.

Method and Tools

Indigenous peoples participatory interaction, focal group discussion, open sharing, key informant identification and selection carried out. Structured questionnaire interview had been carried.

Highly marginalized 47 Kulung indigenous peoples were participated in the Sankhuwasabah district. 28 Female and 19 male in different aged group participated on the process of survey. Similarly, participants from marginalized 48 participants from Tamang community (23 Churimai VDC, 20f and 3m and 25 Nibuwatar, 23f and 2m  of Makawanpur district) and highly marginalized Bote community (11 participants 4f and 7m) in Manohari VDC Makawanpur.

Survey Area

The survey activities were focused Kulung communities in Sankhuwasabha. The targeted area is inhabitant of Kulung indigenous community. Similarly, Tamang and Bote Communities had been selected in the makawanpur.

NGO-FONIN has eleven branch organizations; Sankhuwasabha is one of the branches of NGO-FONIN. Shilichong Club Society Development Centre (SCSDC) is the member of NGO-FONIN in the sankhuwasabha district. It consulted with the branch and member organization for the baseline survey activity. The Sankhuwasabha branch and Shilichong club had been taken responsibilities for the survey program. According to the consultation meeting there was a community was selected for the program especially in the sankhuwasabha. As a member organization Kanchanjangha Women Development committee is in the Makawanpur. So, NGO-FONIN had coordinated with Kanchanjangha Member organization in the Makwawanpur disktrict for survey program.

Result/Discussion

The first baseline survey was conducted in the Bala VDC ward 9 in Beteni village of Sankhuwasabha district. The program was conducted through the interaction method. The program chaired by the Secretary General Ratna Bahadur kunlung of NGO-FONIN. Program was conducted by the introduced session. After the introduction session the purpose of baseline survey cleared by Raju Bikram Chamling Program Coordinator of NGO-FONIN. After that question answer, information sharing was engaged to all participants. The format was developed under the AIPP-NORAD project. Basically baseline survey is covers in the current situation of indigenous peoples of specific communities.

Demographical Data of Bala VDC Sankhuwa Sabba  

Sankhuwasabha is one of the mountaneous district of Nepal. It lies in the east part of Nepal. There is one Khandbari Municipality and 33 village development committees. The total households are 34,615 (in details 30,959 is owned, Rented, 2,596, Institutional 189 and others are 871). Total population is 158,742 in details 75,225 Male and Females are 83,517. Beteni village ward no. 9 of Bala VDC was selected to conduct the baseline survey for Kulung community. The total households of the village are 567 and total population is 2,828 and among them male are 1,331 and female are 1497.Beteni village is one of the pure 'Kulung' community. It lies in the south area of the Sankhuwasabha district. The

community is unknown about establishment of the village but they believed that their forefathers were migrated from the Mahakulung of Solukhumbu district.

Social

There are 45 houses holds in the Beteni village. They have 5 people per household and total population is estimated around 255. which is table number 1 is shows in details.

                   Table number.1

Age

Male

Female

Total

Percent

01-10 years

14

16

30

14

11-20 years

18

22

40

16

21-30 years

32

33

65

25

31-40 years

34

36

70

27

41-50 years

17

18

35

12

 Over 60 years

8

7

15

6

Total

123

132

255

100

      Source of date field survey, 06 December 2013

 

According to table number no.1, it shows that 1 to 10 years Childs population are 30, 14 are male and 16 are females, 11 to 20 age peoples are 40 male are 18 and female are22, 21 to 30 age peoples are 65, 34 male and 36 female, 31-40 peoples total70, male are 34 and female 36, 41 to 50 population is 35, male are 17 and female are 18 and over 60 years total population is 15 male are 8 and female are 7 of Beteni village. There are 45 household and 3 Childrens in every households. They are involving in different kinds of organization, groups such as Indigenous Peoples Organizations (IPOs), community forestry organizations, cooperative and local income generation practices.

Religion

Kulungs are the animist in religion and worship to land, mountain, water, forest, crops, ancestors, air and the whole cosmos in which they survive and continue their life system. Land worshipping is called Tosh in KulungLanguage and at present popularly 3 times in a year they perform it, though there are more than 6 types of Tosh.

Festival:

According to the structured questionnaire developed for interviewing and focus group discusson Kulung participants highleted their practices of celebrating Chakchakur (New Year called also Minari Dacham). This is one of the great festival of Kulung community. Like this, Maghe Sankrati, Saune Sankrati (festival) are others they celebrate.

Health

In the survey area there is no any health post/clinics. They have normal knowledge about family planning. If they get sick then first they use Nokchho/Mop (own traditional healer and expert on the knowledge of treatment and use of herbal medicine) for the primary treatment. If not recovered or cured then they will go to hospital in headquarters. Most of the Peoples are facing fever, diarrhoea communicable disease. Some of the houses have toilet but not in all households. They have not plan to manage waist things. They are also following to the new generation by the young peoples. So they have been losing their traditional knowledge, culture. In this situation they have not distinct traditional institution. There are some private cooperatives for saving funds. But they have hand mouth problem. So they are not saving economic income. Before sixth month ago Government of Nepal has decision to set army camp in the National park. So it directly impact to the indigenous community.

 

Education

There is one primary school in the survey community. There are not any secondary and other higher education institutions. The children studies in the primary level in the village and they have to go other VDC for secondary school, campus level. Some of the data has been collected about literate rate in the survey community.

 

                         Table number.2

Institution level

Women

Men

Total

illiterate

77

72

149

Primary School

40

35

75

Secondary School

12

8

20

Intermediate level

2

5

7

Bachelor degree

1

3

4

Master’s degree

-

-

-

Doctorate degree

-

-

-

Total

132

123

255

Source of date field survey, 06 December 2013

 

Table number.3

Particular

Details

Languages spoken

Kulung

Types of occupations

Ngo, Army, Police, Teacher.

No of employee in Government sector

12

No of employee in NGOs, army

Ngo-1, army-2

Minimum wage

 

                                 Source of date field survey, 06 December 2013

 

Gender

On the discussion session they have shared about role and responsibility are same in the family and community. Men and women have equal opportunity in the community. Even though most of the decision making process men participated in the community level. There is some social rule /regulation but not tradition values are practicing in that village/community. There is no any traditional justice system, institutional system.

 

Natural/Livelihood:

There is 5,000 Ropani Total community land. But there is not Land tenure system. Most of the Land are use for the agriculture rice, wheat, etc. some of the lands are using for jungle. Normally natural forest is there. It is called private forest and community forest. Private forest is that which is registered in personal name in the government office. Community forest means all the community can use for grazing, wood etc, and managed by community. The community is depending in the agriculture so they have depended in the forest. They bring grass, seula (fodders) and wood from the jungle. There is not allowed to cut trees. But they have free to cut small wood according to time period. There is not electricity power so they are using solar, candle etc. there is enough water resources and natural resources. But because of the lack of empowerment, they are not using natural resources. While the discussion session people shared about bio-diversities. They have been producing different kinds of herbal medicine chiraito(swertia or chireta), titepati(mugwort), elainchi(cardamum) etc. most of the men have knowledge about herbal medicine. They use in the illness also. Tiger, bear, Deer, porcupine, leopard, lizard, monkeys are main wild animal can get in that forest. There are two big rivers one is the Kholesi River and another one is Sankhuwa River. On the occasion of ritual festival they worship of rivers, land, tree, god and goddess.

 

Economics:

All the households are depending on the agriculture. So they produce maize, millet, wheat, potato, pidalu (colocasia or taro root), fapar(buckwheat), soybean, chilies. They self manage the all kinds of seeds of the foods. Most of the produces food they self eat but some of the foods sells in the hatbazar in the headquarter. One cooperative branch is available for economic transaction. The some peoples do transaction from that cooperative but most of the house hold are not access in the bank, cooperative. Main economic income generation is allo (himalaya giant nettle) but management and skill is gaping. So they need support on the skill development and marketing for the allo (himalaya giant nettle) made goods.

 

Governance and Policies:

There are no political leaders. They are only voter. They have hand mouth problem. So they are always busy in the agriculture and other jobs. Their community people are not interested in the political leader. So they are not represented in the political parties. Mostly Unified Marxist Liniest, Unified Marxist Liniest Maoist, Raprapa Nepal political parties are leading in the community level. Normally when they get quarrel in the village then themselves manage the parties but if not possible to manage then they use to go government judicial body. In the real sense government policies are effecting to the community in the forest, land and education.

 

Vulnerability Context:

Accidently it had become dangers landslide at 2009 and 1995. After that there is not repeating that kinds of incidental disasters. Especially only one ethnic community is leaving this area. So they are not involving in the conflict on own community and different other groups. They have not got any violence. Kirat is the kulung ancestor. So they use local alcohols for worship in the every household. Because they could not pray, worship without local wine. Not only this much they do hard work so they drink wine in timetable and festival situation. Kulung community fully depends on the agriculture even though they have not enough food availability. Those areas are hilly side. So Corns could not enough produce. So they have only 3 to 4 months food availability. Beteni is the good for natural resource environment. There is not any industry. So there is not any problem of pollutions, chemical etc.

 

Major problems

      Natural disaster (Unknowingly disaster).

      Wild animal (Wild animal destroy corns, eats)

      Electricity.

 

 

 

 

Demographical Data of Churiyamai VDC Makawanpur

Makawanpur is another district of base line survey. It lies in the mid part of Nepal. There are total 86,045 households in Makawanpur district. In details those households are divided into the 75,155 are owned household, 8,561 Rented, 1,109 institutional and 1,220 are others. The total population of Makawanpur districts is 420,477, male are 206,684 and females are 213,793. There are one Hetauda municipality and 43 VDCs. (Census report 2013)

 

Tamang community and bote community had selected for the baseline survey for comparatively. Tamang is the one the marginalized community of Nepal. It was categorized by the Nepal Federation of Indigenous Nationalities (NFDIN). Tamang population is the fifth position in the all Nepal caste/ethnic groups and third population position in the ethnic groups. Total population is 1,539,830 of Tamang community and they spokes Tamang mother tongue1,353,311. (Census Report 2011).

 

There were two Tamang community had selected for pre baseline survey. One is the Churiyamai VDC and another is Nibuwatar VDC. Churiyamai VDC is the mid-region of Makawanpur district. There are 2,980 total households and total VDC's population is 14,274, male are 6,846 nad female are 7,428. Churiyamai VDC's Churiyamai village had been sleeted for the survey. The details information has been following it.

 

Likewise Bote community was also selected for field survey in Churiyamai VDC of Makwanpur district.. All over the country, a total population of Bote is reported 10,397 by the government national housing and population census-2011 and among them 8,766 speak Bote mother language. This community is one of the highly marginalized communities categorized by NEFIN. The detail information is as follows.

 

Churiyamai VDC:

Table no.4

 

Particular

Name

Remarks

1

Name of the Village

Churiyamai

 

2

Tol (Street)

Churiyamai

 

3

Ward No.

05

 

4

VDC

Churiyamai

 

5

Area No.

03

 

6

District

Makawanpur

 

7

Zone

Narayani

 

                           Source of date field survey, 11 December 2013

 

Churiyamai is the one of the proper Tamang community village. It lies in the mid area of makawanpur district. Tamang is the marginalized community.

 

Social Information

here are 55 household In the Churiyamai villages. Every family has 5 members. The total populations are 275. This is the expected information given by the participants. The tentative age bar has been collected by primary information from community.

                       

 

 

 

Table nom.5

Age

Male

Female

Total

Percent

01-10 years

29

31

60

22

11-20 years

20

25

45

16

21-30 years

19

21

40

15

31-40 years

28

31

59

21

41-50 years

28

26

54

20

 Over 60 years

9

8

17

6

Total

133

142

275

100

Source of date field survey, 11 December 2013

 

Chart no.5 shows that 1 to 10 year population are 21.82 percent, 11 to 20 year peoples are 16.36 percent, 21 to 30 year peoples 14.55 percent, 31 to 40 year peoples 21.45 percent, 41 to 50 years 19.64 percent and over 60 years peoples are 6.18 percent. The total population of Churiyamai village is 275.

Religion

Tamang community religion is Buddha. So field survey also took information about they believe in the Buddha religion and they are also practicing it.

Health

In the field survey community there is one health post office of government. If they get the sick then first they use herbal medicine if not good then they used to go health post or hospital.

Education

There is one Lower secondary High school in the Churiyamai community. Some of the women have taken informal education by the district development committee and ngos.

             

                                                     Table no.6

Institution level

Women

Men

Total

 

Remarks

Illiterate

85

45

130

 

Informal education have taken

Primary School

45

35

80

 

 

Secondary School

20

25

45

 

 

Intermediate level

7

5

12

 

 

Bachelor degree

5

3

8

 

 

Master’s degree

0

0

0

0

 

Doctorate degree

0

0

0

0

 

Total

162

113

275

100

 

Source of date field survey, 11 December 2013

 

The chart shows that most of the peoples are illiterate but they learned informal education. Blue color present of the women, red color present to the men and green color present the total population. Until now there are not master degree holders. Some of the students are studying in the graduate level.

 

 

 

 

 

                                      Table no.7

Particular

Details

Languages spoken

Tamang

Types of occupations

Ngo, police, army police force

No of employee in Government sector

1 police and 2 army police force

No of employee in NGOs, army

2 in ngo

Minimum wage

 

 Gender

Normally women and men equal right in the decision making in family. Men go to the out of community for job and some of the female are going to study out of community. There is not gender discrimination for education and any family work.

Natural/Livelihood:

They have land and deepened on the agriculture. They have not any income generation jobs. They had not any knowledge about government resources. If they got the chance to aware about rights base issues and government resources and they assure, they will access in the government resources and it will be change in the livelihood.

Economics:

They are economically not empowerment. They have not got job. There are not any job opportunities. If they earn the money then they can save in the finance and bank near the head quarter.

Governance and Policies:

Churiyamai's Tamang community is not aware about government policies. So they are depriving from their rights.

Vulnerability Context:

Tamang community has lost their traditional culture, skills. Tamang youths are not interesting to take traditional knowledge, skills. So they feel that if the culture and traditional knowledge loss then identity are also loss.

Major problems

      Transportation.

      Water

      Sand control management.

Demographical Data of Nibuwatar VDC Makawanpur

Nibuwatar VDC is another VDC of Makawanpur district. It had been done also base line survey in that VDC. There are 884 household in the Nibuwatar VDC. Total population is 4,259 in details male are 2,006 and females are 2,253. Lekhapandrung is the one of the VDC of Nibuwatar. This village had been selected for baseline survey. The following information has been taken from that village.

 Table nom.8

 

Particular

Name

Remarks

1

Name of the Village

Lekhpandrung

Village

2

Tol

Lekhapandrung

Tol

3

Ward Nom

02

 

4

VDC

Nibuwatar

 

5

Area Nom

02

 

6

District

Makawanpur

 

7

Zone

Narayani

 

Lekhapandrung is the one of the Tamang community village. It lies in the Makawanpur district near mid point.

Social Information

There are 53 household In the Lekhapandrung village. Every family has 7 members. The total 371 peoples are in the all households. This is the tentative information given by the participants. The tentative age bar has been collected by primary information from community.

 

Lekhapandrung villageTable nom.9

Age

Male

Female

Total

Percent

01-10 years

50

55

105

28

11-20 years

42

45

87

24

21-30 years

24

21

45

12

31-40 years

23

25

48

13

41-50 years

24

29

53

14

 Over 60 years

19

14

33

9

Total

182

189

371

100

Source of date field survey, December 2013

 

Table no.9 shows that the total population of Lekhapandrung village is 371. In the overall percentage 01 to 10 years children population is 29.26 percent, 11 to 20 year population is 23.14 percent, 21 to 30 year population is 11.97 percent, 31 to 40 years population is 12.77, 41 to 50 years population is 14.10 percent and over the 60 years percent is 8.78. So the overall population data shows that children population is over than other. So we can say that there is children birth rate is high. Because there peoples have not literate about family planning and other educations.

Religion

Tamang community religion is Buddha. So field survey also took information about they believe in the Buddha religion and they are also in the practicing.

Health

According to discussion there is no any health post, medication and other hospital. If they get sick then they use to normal herbal medicine and go the hospital near headquarter. They believe in the lama guru also in the treatment.

Education

There is only one primary school in the Lekhpandrung community. Most of the peoples are illiterate. They have not studied. The

following data shows about education level of Lekhpandrung village.

 

 

           

Lekhpandrung VillageTable No.10

Institution level

Women

Men

Total

 

 

 

 

illiterate

139

145

284

Primary School

45

35

80

Secondary School

3

2

5

Intermediate level

1

0

1

Bachelor degree

1

0

1

Master’s degree

0

0

0

Doctorate degree

0

0

0

Table No. 11

Particular

Detail

Languages spoken

Tamang

Types of occupations

Temporary teacher-1

No of employee in Government sector

0

No of employee in NGOs, army

0

Minimum wage

 

 

The chart shows that most of the peoples are illiterate. New generation has started to go school and no more secondary level students. But some of them they have taken information education by the ngos. 

Gender

Normally men decision within the family. Male goes to the out of home for transaction. Most of the women are house wife and involve in home worker.

Natural/Livelihood:

They have land and private jungle for agriculture. But that is not enough for livelihood. All the communities are depending on the agriculture.

Economics:

In the baseline survey it could not find any income generation for economic empowerment. Just they produce corns. Some of the house holds sells in the market but most of the family have problem for food availability for six month.

Governance and Policies:

Tamang community has normally access in the political parties in the district and central level. But there is not any representative in the Lekhapandrung village by the Tamang community.

Vulnerability Context:

Food availability is only 6 to 8 month. This is the main problem. There is no any Violence among the other communities.

Major problems

      Unemployment.

      Education.

      Food availability.

 

Bote Community

Bote community had selected for baseline survey of Manahari village of Manahari VDC. The Bote community is residential got in bank of river. Their traditional profession is fishing, boating. But because of the development all their profession is losing. Government also is not supporting to that community. So they are vulnerable community. They are not accessing the local resources. They have not got chance to get education. So they have not got any job. There are total household are 4,215, total population is 19,84, male are 9,630 and females are 10,354 in the Manahari VDC. Poverty is main problem of the Bote community. They have hand mouth problem in every day. They have not any agriculture land. Nepal Government has provided 10 dhur for home. But government has not made home to them. They go to bank of river for fishing. But now days they do not get to fishing. So they have big problem in daily life. In the discussion session they would not talk more. They would need funding support for eating not awareness program. It had visited in 14 households. They have no any grain, cooking pots, cot and wearing cloths.

Key Learning

Government data shows that 35.35% are of scheduled indigenous nationalities and 2.67% are of enlistment oriented indigenous nationalities comprising a total 38% approximately in a whole population Nepal according to census 2011. But indigenous peoples are not aware about their rights, they are not empowered. So they do not know about importance of census data nor other government offices' value. So, mostly the non indigenous peoples were involved in the whole process of national housing and population census 2011. Consequently 12 scheduled indigenous peoples[1] and 17 enlistment oriented indigenous peoples[2] were left out to report in the census-2011 though the slogan 'kohi nachhutun kohi nadohoriun' (no one should be left out and no one should be repeated) in the census was declared claiming a meaningful participation and representation.

 

Even in the census reported figures, the population of indigenous peoples are under-represented and the disaggregated data of required sectors like - literacy, education, health, employment, economic opportunity and economic activities, decision making and representatives in state operation representing to individual case/ethnicities have not yet been disclosed.   The percentage of IPs represented less in the census impact to plan and program of development with less allocation of development budget to the indigenous peoples.  

 

Among such less represented indienous peoples, Kulung community is also the one. In the real sense they have enough natural resources but they have no idea to use them properly. If the project focuses on the empowerment to the community making aware them on their rights to manage the natural resources and to the existing government policies, regulations and guidelines for accessing to resources through the government mechanisms then indigenous community will be empowered and start claiming and get government resources regularly for sustaining their livelihood and developmental program initiated by the project.

The following learning has been felt by launcing the program.

 

      It has been learned from the survey how and what traditional knowledge of IPs women co-related with natural resources for sustainable livelihood in targeted areas.

      Communities have natural resources but it is being degraded.

      None of IPs women are empowered regarding their rights on natural

      IPs women have very less access in educational opportunities.

      A gap of knowledge and information about governmental policies to IPs and IPs Women at local. 

      IPs women need to be empowered through capacity building to access the governmental resources to ensure their full and effective participation with respect their role and contribution of traditional knowledge, practices for managing of natural resources through campaign, media. 

Main problems in the community level

      Natural disaster (Unknowingly disaster).

      Wild animal (Wild animal destroy corns, eats)

      Electricity.

      Unemployment.

      Education.

      Food unavailability.

      Transportation.

      Water

      Flood.

 Conclusion

NGO-FONIN has conducted baseline survey in the four places of three communities of two districts. Survey shows that indigenous communities have enough resources but they have not technical knowledge or traditional knowledge for management. Communities have managed natural resources on traditional way but they are facing daily hand to mouth problem. If the project can success to empower to the community then they will access in the government resources and possible to sustain their livelihood comfortably. So knowledge sharing, workshop, empowerment, training program are necessary for the community.

      IPs and IPs women have less opportunity for educational program,

      Big gapes on governmental policies, resources, information and participation

      Willingness to participate

      Rich on traditional knowledge, practices, innovation and sustainable management skills for resources available in local areas

[1]       Tin Gaunle Thakali, Barah Gaunle Thakali, Marphali Thakali, Mugumpa(Mugalli), Tangbe, Bankariya, Chhairoten, Thudam, Free, Larke, Siyar, Surel

[2]       Ranatharu, Karmarong, Kewarat, Khadiya, Khunaha, Gond, Ghyalsundo Narpa, Ngisyang, Thukchulung, Thaplya Vyasi, Nimba(Nhinba), Limiyan, Sonaha, Hyulchhudun, Jero, Done and Kham